Title: The AMuseWiki Manual

Subtitle: The writer's guide

Date: 2012

The AMuseWiki Manual

The writer's guide

Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License.”

The Muse markup

A Muse document uses special, contextual markup rules to determine how to format the output result. For example, if a paragraph is indented, Muse assumes it should be quoted. Indentation is heavily used to determine if the paragraph is something different from “normal” text.

There are not too many markup rules, and all of them strive to be as simple as possible so that you can focus on document creation, rather than formatting.

This document describes Muse, which was written by John Wiegley, then maintained by Michael Olson and edited for this implementation by Marco Pessotto.

Paragraphs

Paragraphs in Muse must be separated by a blank line.

Centered and right aligned paragraphs and quotations

A line that begins with six or more columns of whitespace (but less than 20) indicates a centered paragraph.

Alternatively, you can use the <center> tag to surround regions that are to be published as centered paragraphs.

Like this

But if the line begins with more than 20 spaces, you'll have a right aligned paragraph. This is handy for signatures.

Like this right-aligned one.

The same result is done with the right tag.

Using the tags:

Like this centered one

And this is right

This is a quotation:

But if a line begins with whitespace (at least 2 spaces), though less than six columns, it indicates a quoted paragraph. Alternatively, you can use the <quote> tag to surround regions that are to be published as quoted paragraphs.

Source
A line that begins with six or more columns of whitespace
(but less than 20) indicates a centered paragraph.

Alternatively, you can use the =<center>= tag to surround regions that
are to be published as centered paragraphs.

           Like this

But if the line begins with more than 20 spaces, you'll have a right
aligned paragraph. This is handy for signatures.

                                     Like this right-aligned one.

The same result is done with the =right= tag.

Using the tags:

<center>
Like this centered one
</center>

<right>
And this is right
</right>

This is a quotation:

  But if a line begins with whitespace (at least 2 spaces), though
  less than six columns, it indicates a quoted paragraph.
  Alternatively, you can use the =<quote>= tag to surround regions that
  are to be published as quoted paragraphs.

Please keep in mind that indentation must be consistent if you prefer to keep the lines short and break them inserting a new line. Long lines (using the rule 1 line, 1 paragraph) are perfectly fine. The rule of paragraphs separated by blank lines still apply, though.

Also, <tags> which start and stop blocks, must be placed on a line by themselves.

Literal paragraphs

The <example> tag is used for examples, where whitespace should be preserved, the text rendered in monospace, and any characters special to the output style escaped.

Example:

 <example>
 The =<example>= tag is used for examples, where whitespace
 should be preserved, the text rendered in monospace, and any
 characters special to the output style escaped.
 </example>

There is no <literal> tag as in the original Muse markup, because it's not a private tool and will be exposed to the internet.

Line breaks

If you need a line break, then use the br tag. Most of the time this tag is unnecessary, because Muse will automatically detect paragraphs by means of blank lines. If you want to preserve newlines in several lines of text, then use verse markup instead.

This line will break <br> And continue

Yields:

This line will break
And continue.


If you want to add a blank, line, put the br tag on a line by itself:

Here we add a blank line
<br>
Here we go.

Here we add a blank line
Here we go.

Page breaks

If you put exactly five “*” separated by whitespace on a line by itself, indented by 6 or more spaces (like a centered paragraph), you'll get a page break in the PDF.

This code will break the page.

       * * * * * 

* * * * *

Anyway, using three of them is just a decorator and it's not threated specially.

* * *

It's just a centered paragraph with 3 “*”.

Levels of headings

A heading becomes a chapter or section in printed output - depending on the style. To indicate a heading, start a new paragraph with one or more asterices, followed by a space and the heading title. Then begin another paragraph to enter the text for that section.

All levels of headings will be published. There is support for 5 levels.

The first level is a "part", and should be used only for larger texts. In this document is used for the License and for the main title.

The second level is a "chapter". It starts a new page on the PDF output.

The third level is undoubtely the most used. It usually separate a section of an article. For example the "Literal paragraph" above.

The forth level goes down further.

Forth level, a “subsection”

The fifth level is very, very low. It's handy to create description lists, too. It's not dumped on the Table of Contents.

item 1

A description

item 2

Another description

The example of levels
* First level, aka part

** Second level, aka chapter

*** Third level, aka section

**** Fourth level, aka subsection

***** Fifth level, aka subsubsection

Directives at the beginning of a document

Directives are lines beginning with the `#' character that come before any paragraphs or sections in the document.

Directives are of the form #directive content of directive.

You can use any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters for directives, even if the directive is not in the list below. The directives are completely arbitrary. You can put there whatever you want. It's the template job to pick them up. In the templates shipped with this bunlde there is support for the following directives:

The following is a list of directives that Muse uses.

  • #author

    The author of the text.

  • #title

    The title of the document

  • #lang

    The language code of the document (2 or 3 letters). Defaults to en.

  • #LISTtitle

    This directive is used (defaulting to #title) to alphabetically sort the titles. It's handy if you want, for example, sort "A title" under "T" and not under "A".

    In this case you may write #LISTtitle Title

  • #subtitle

    The subtitle (if any)

  • #SORTauthors

    If not provided, this default to #author. It's a list separated by semicolons or commas with the various authors. While #author affects the display only, this one is used to index the document.

  • #SORTtopics

    As for authors, it's a list (comma- or semicolon-separated) list of topics for the current text. Used to index the document.

  • #date

    The year of publishing of the document. More information should be provided in the #notes directive.

  • #notes

    This directive is used for additional information here (original title, translators, credits, etc).

  • #source

    This directive is used for the source or the text (url, scanned from original, original contribution, etc.). The preferred format is “Retrieved on March 8, 2012 from the url

Bold, italicized and emphatized text

To emphasize text, surround it with certain specially recognized characters.

The following example will produce:

emphasis strong emphasis very strong emphasis verbatim and monospace

     *emphasis*
     **strong emphasis**
     ***very strong emphasis***
     =verbatim and monospace=

Each of these forms may span multiple lines, but not multiple paragraphs.

You can also use the <code> tag to indicate verbatim and monospace text. This is handy for regions that have an "=" in them.

If the “*” confuse you or the preview is screwed up, you can use inline tag <em> and <strong>, which are guarantee to work in any case.

The above example rewritten with tags:

     <em>emphasis</em>
     <strong>strong emphasis</strong>
     <strong><em>very strong emphasis</em></strong>
     <code>verbatim and monospace</code>

And produces the same thing.

emphasis strong emphasis very strong emphasis verbatim and monospace

Please note that there is no support for the underline. Underlining is an handwritten substitute for the italics. You simply don't need it.

Also, small caps are missing, mainly because on the HTML they look awful and a very few fonts have decent small caps.

Other tags are <sub> and <sup> for subscript and superscript. And there is also a <del> tag for overstriking.

This is the <sup>superscript</sup> and this is a
<sub>subscript</sub>, and this is <del>something deleted and
overstriked</del>

This is the superscript and this is a subscript, and this is something deleted and overstriked

Making notes to be shown at the end

A footnote reference is simply a number in square brackets. To define the footnote, place this definition starting the line with a digit in square brackets.

This is the text, and we refer to a footnote [1]

Here the text continues.

[1] This footnote
    spans more lines in the source

 [2] But this is not, because of the initial whitespace.

[3] Footnotes which don't have a referrer will disappear on the PDF
    output and preserverd in the HTML. But will lead to incorrect
    code, as it will point to a non-existent anchor

This is the result:


This is the text, and we refer to a footnote [1]

Here the text continues.

[1] This footnote spans more lines in the source

[2] But this is not, because of the initial whitespace.

[3] Footnotes which don't have a referrer will disappear on the PDF output and preserved in the HTML. But will lead to incorrect code, as it will point to a non-existent anchor


You can break the footnotes lines (even if it's not reccomended), but keep the indentation consistent, as shown above

Indicating poetic stanzas

Poetry requires that whitespace be preserved, but without resorting to monospace. To indicate this, use the following markup, reminiscent of email quotations, or use the verse tag.

> A line of Emacs verse;
>   forgive its being so terse.

<verse>
     A line of Emacs verse;
       forgive its being so terse.
</verse>

This yields:

A line of Emacs verse;
  forgive its being so terse.
     A line of Emacs verse;
       forgive its being so terse.

Multiple stanzas may be included in one set of <verse> tags, as follows.

<verse>
A line of Emacs verse;
  forgive its being so terse.

In terms of terse verse,
  you could do worse.
</verse>

Or this

> A line of Emacs verse;
>   forgive its being so terse.
> 
> In terms of terse verse,
>   you could do worse.

A line of Emacs verse;
  forgive its being so terse.

In terms of terse verse,
  you could do worse.

Or this

A line of Emacs verse;
  forgive its being so terse.

In terms of terse verse,
  you could do worse.

Lists

Lists are given using special characters at the beginning of a line. Whitespace must occur before bullets or numbered items, to distinguish from the possibility of those characters occurring in a real sentence.

Normal text.

      - bullet item one
      - bullet item two

An enumerated list follows.

      1. Enum item one
      2. Enum item two

A list with roman numbering

 i.   First
 ii.  Second
 iii. Third

A list with upper roman numbering

 I.   First
 II.  Second
 III. Third

A list with upper letters

 A. first
 B. second
 C. third

A list with lower letters

 a. first
 b. second
 c. third

Please note the consistent indentation, expecially for roman numbering.

Normal text.

  • bullet item one

  • bullet item two

An enumerated list follows.

  1. Enum item one

  2. Enum item two

A list with roman numbering

  1. First

  2. Second

  3. Third

A list with upper roman numbering

  1. First

  2. Second

  3. Third

A list with upper letters

  1. first

  2. second

  3. third

A list with lower letters

  1. first

  2. second

  3. third

While the original Emacs Muse had the description lists, this implementation has not. You should use the fifth level of headings for those. The outcome is mostly the same (yes, you can't nest them in lists, but crazy nesting is beyond the scope of this markup).

Nested lists

It is possible to nest lists of the same or different kinds. The "level" of the list is determined by the amount of initial whitespace.

Normal text.

 - Level 1, bullet item one
   1. Level 2, enum item one
   2. Level 2, enum item two
 - Level 1, bullet item two
   1. Level 2, enum item one
   2. Level 2, enum item two
      i.  Level 3, enum item i
      ii. Level 3, enum item ii
   3. Level 2, enum item three
 - Back to Level 1, third bullet
   a. Level 2, enum item “a”
   b. Level 2, enum item “b”
      I. Level 3, enum item “I”
 - Back to the bullets

Normal text.

  • Level 1, bullet item one

    1. Level 2, enum item one

    2. Level 2, enum item two

  • Level 1, bullet item two

    1. Level 2, enum item one

    2. Level 2, enum item two

      1. Level 3, enum item i

      2. Level 3, enum item ii

    3. Level 2, enum item three

  • Back to Level 1, third bullet

    1. Level 2, enum item “a”

    2. Level 2, enum item “b”

      1. Level 3, enum item “I”

  • Back to the bullets

Breaking list items

If you want to break up a line within any list type, just put one blank line between the end of the previous line and the beginning of the next line, using the same amount of initial indentation.

Keep in mind that if you put random indentation you'll get random and probably unexpected results (but it should not crash -- if it does, please contact me).

Also, you can be lazy with numbered list. The parser actually doesn't care if you number them properly, or just do something like that.

 1. first
 1. second
 1. third

or

 a. first
 a. second
 a. third

There results will always be:

  1. first

  2. second

  3. third

or

  1. first

  2. second

  3. third

If you need to switch type while the list is running, put a br tag between them, or some invisible material like a non-breaking space.

This won't get you what you expect:

 1. first
 a. first item

So you'll have to do:

 1. first
<br>
 a. first item

Which yields:


This won't get you what you expect:

  1. first

  2. first item

So you'll have to do:

  1. first


  1. first item


Complete example

Normal text.

 - Level 1, bullet item one, this is the first paragraph. I can break
   the line, keeping the same amount of indentation

   Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
   item above.

   1. Level 2, enum item one. i can break the line, keeping the same
      amount of indentation

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

   2. Level 2, enum item two
      which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

 - Level 1, bullet item two
   which continues

   Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
   item above.

   1. Level 2, enum item one
      which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

   2. Level 2, enum item two
      which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

      i.  Level 3, enum item i

          Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues
          the item above.

      ii. Level 3, enum item ii

          Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues
          the item above.

   3. Level 2, enum item three
      which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

 - Back to Level 1, third bullet

   Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
   item above.

   a. Level 2, enum item “a”
      which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

   b. Level 2, enum item “b”
      which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
      item above.

         I. Level 3, enum item “I”

            Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
            item above.

 - Back to the bullets

   Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the
   item above.

Normal text.

  • Level 1, bullet item one, this is the first paragraph. I can break the line, keeping the same amount of indentation

    Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    1. Level 2, enum item one. i can break the line, keeping the same amount of indentation

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    2. Level 2, enum item two which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

  • Level 1, bullet item two which continues

    Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    1. Level 2, enum item one which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    2. Level 2, enum item two which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

      1. Level 3, enum item i

        Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

      2. Level 3, enum item ii

        Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    3. Level 2, enum item three which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

  • Back to Level 1, third bullet

    Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    1. Level 2, enum item “a” which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

    2. Level 2, enum item “b” which continues

      Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

      1. Level 3, enum item “I”

        Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

  • Back to the bullets

    Here I have the same amount of indentation, and it continues the item above.

Generation of data tables

Only very simple tables are supported. The syntax is as follows (just keep the indentation consistent and separate each cell by one or more textbars.

     Triple bars ||| Separate footer fields
     Double bars  || Separate header fields
     Single bars   | Separate body fields
     Here are more | body fields
     |+ This is the caption +|
This is the caption
Double bars Separate header fields
Triple bars Separate footer fields
Single bars Separate body fields
Here are more body fields

The ordering of the footer, header and table body blocks is irrelevant for the output (HTML requires you put first the header, then the footer, then the body). Ordering of the single rows is of course preserved. From this we come to the conclusion that you can't normally typeset the pipe symbol without triggering a list. In <example> you can type it freely. Inside the cells you can do pretty much what you want (beside headers and lists): mark them up freely.

Hyperlinks with or without description (and images)

A hyperlink can reference a URL or a place on the same document. In addition, descriptive text can be specified, which should be displayed rather than the link text in output styles that supports link descriptions. The syntax is as follows.

     [[link target][link description]]
     [[link target without description]]

So, the home of this project is
[[http://theanarchistlibrary.org][The Anarchist Library]],
which can be found at [[http://theanarchistlibrary.org]]
Bare links will not get the hyperlinking.
So http://thisisspam.org won't get the hyperlinking.

So, the home of this project is The Anarchist Library, which can be found at http://theanarchistlibrary.org Bare links will not get the hyperlinking. So http://thisisspam.org won't get the hyperlinking.

Images

Images are special case of this kind of linking.

[[titlebanner.png]]

We assume that we have the “titlebanner.png” file on the same directory of the file, and the result is:

titlebanner.png

Now, let's add a caption.

[[titlebanner.png][This is our banner]]

This is our banner
This is our banner

Remote urls are not permitted. Also, the patch checking is rather strict, so please use just alphanumeric filenames for your images.

Inserting a horizontal line or anchor

Horizontal Rules

Four or more dashes indicate a horizontal rule. Be sure to put blank lines around it, or it will be considered part of the proceeding or following paragraph, like this: ---------.

Example

----

Results:


Lines to omit from published output

; Comment text goes here.

That is, only a semi-colon at the beginning of a line, followed by a literal space, will cause that line to be treated as a comment and totally removed from the output.

You can alternatively surround the region with the <comment> tag. In this case the HTML output will be wrapped in a <div> with the display:none property, so it can be turned visibile changing the CSS.

<comment>
This won't be published, but in the HTML is there, only hidden
</comment>
{{COMMENT:

This won't be published, but in the HTML is there, only hidden

END_COMMENT}}:

Plays and bibliographies

Unlike the original Muse, this implementation doesn't support external sources for citations, but provides an environment which can used to compose the list of cited works without resorting to lists, wrapping all in a <biblio> tag.

<biblio>
The author, *Title*, published on
[[http://theanarchistlibrary.org][The Anarchist Library]], with a
very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very,
very, long description

Another author, *Another title*, published in the real world. with a
very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very,
very, long description
</biblio>

The author, Title, published on The Anarchist Library, with a very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, long description

Another author, Another title, published in the real world. with a very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, very, long description

The list is wrapped in a <div> with class set to biblio, while the TeX source get wrapped in \startawikibiblio and \stopawikibiblio. You are free to change class and definition. A reversed indentation is suggested.

The same goes with the <play> environment, which is supposed to wrap theathrical plays, when you want a reverse indentation and more spacing between the paragraph (without resorting to <verse> and hardcoding the spaces.

<play>
**Pol.** Ophelia, walke you heere. Gracious so please ye <br>
We will bestow our selues: Reade on this booke, <br>
That shew of such an exercise may colour <br>
Your lonelinesse. We are oft too blame in this, <br>
'Tis too much prou'd, that with Deuotions visage, <br>
And pious Action, we do surge o're <br>
The diuell himselfe

**King.** Oh 'tis true: <br>
How smart a lash that speech doth giue my Conscience? <br>
The Harlots Cheeke beautied with plaist'ring Art <br>
Is not more vgly to the thing that helpes it, <br>
Then is my deede, to my most painted word. <br>
Oh heauie burthen!

</play>

Pol. Ophelia, walke you heere. Gracious so please ye
We will bestow our selues: Reade on this booke,
That shew of such an exercise may colour
Your lonelinesse. We are oft too blame in this,
'Tis too much prou'd, that with Deuotions visage,
And pious Action, we do surge o're
The diuell himselfe

King. Oh 'tis true:
How smart a lash that speech doth giue my Conscience?
The Harlots Cheeke beautied with plaist'ring Art
Is not more vgly to the thing that helpes it,
Then is my deede, to my most painted word.
Oh heauie burthen!

GNU Free Documentation License

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  0. PREAMBLE

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  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

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     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

     A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
     distinct    from that of the Document, and from those of previous
     versions    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
     History section    of the Document).  You may use the same title
     as a previous version    if the original publisher of that version
     gives permission.
     B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
     entities    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
     Modified    Version, together with at least five of the principal
     authors of the    Document (all of its principal authors, if it
     has fewer than five),    unless they release you from this
     requirement.
     C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
     Modified Version, as the publisher.
     D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
     E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
     adjacent to the other copyright notices.
     F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
     notice    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
     under the    terms of this License, in the form shown in the
     Addendum below.
     G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
     Sections    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
     license notice.
     H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
     I. Preserve the section Entitled "History," Preserve its Title,
     and add    to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
     authors, and    publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
     Title Page.  If    there is no section Entitled "History" in the
     Document, create one    stating the title, year, authors, and
     publisher of the Document as    given on its Title Page, then add
     an item describing the Modified    Version as stated in the
     previous sentence.
     J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
       public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
       the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
       it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
       You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
       least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
      publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
     K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications,"
     Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
       the substance and tone of each of the contributor
     acknowledgements    and/or dedications given therein.
     L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
     unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
     or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
     M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements."  Such a section
     may not be included in the Modified Version.
     N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
     "Endorsements"    or to conflict in title with any Invariant
     Section.
     O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements," provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties-for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition
     of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements," and any sections Entitled "Dedications."  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements,"
     "Dedications," or "History," the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

     Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
     under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
     or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
     with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
     A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
     Free Documentation License.''

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

     with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
     Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
     LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.