Navigating Agamben’s Cinematic Paradox via Laruellean Immanence
A Hacktivist Case Study
Walter Benjamin’s 1936 essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility” advances the claim that, for the first time in history, the “function” of the work of art is political, as evinced by cinema. For Benjamin, film is the "first art form whose artistic character is entirely determined by its reproducibility" (1936, 109) and Giorgio Agamben, a contemporary Benjaminian philosopher, further elucidates on this “function,” positing that cinema essentially ranks with ethics and politics, not solely with aesthetics, and, consequently, is “proximate” to philosophy itself. Whereas Deleuze's Cinema books posed cinema as enacting time in a pure state, Agamben, in his "Notes on Gesture," (1992) breaches from Deleuze’s spatial and cartographic theory of cinema (Conley 2007, 9), drawing from Guy Debord’s “détournement via montage” (2003, 29), Simone Weil’s “decreation” (1947, 32) and, perhaps most implicitly, from Benjamin. Agamben’s political theory of cinema, motivated by cinema’s “stoppage and repetition of time,” (1977) is directly informed by Benjamin’s: “optical unconscious,” (1931) appropriation of Brecht’s “social Gestus,” (1973) and the relationship between technological reproducibility and aura (1946). Agamben’s gesture fastens cinema's aesthetics not only to ethics and politics, but to the "ontological consistency of human experience," or to a way of being. (2014, 23).
While many film theorists declare Agamben as, in equal part, a Deleuzian film theorist, I pose that, through this Benjaminian lens, we can parse distinctive cinematic questions that Agamben exclusively pursues - in particular, cinema's potential as a repurposive counter-dispositif to combat dominant forms via critique. This is not to suggest that parallels do not exist between Agamben and Deleuze’s approaches: as Meillassoux has noted, Deleuze's logic of representation (also known as "correlationism") develops an "image of thought that attempts to overcome the binary separation” between matter and spirit, mind and body. (2008, 5). Furthermore, Agamben is unequivocally astricted to the Bergson-bound Deleuzian tradition of "untimeliness," whereby cinema extricates "the fallacious psychological distinction between image as psychic reality and movement as physical reality." (2000, 55). Furthermore, both Agamben and Deleuze are committed to a notion of "cinema-thought," as Jean-Luc Nancy terms it (1996, 10), or haecceities of Oneness - a commitment to cinema-as-immanence, or indexing thought, rather than mediating it via hermetic historicism. However, Agamben's concept of gesture, as a prelinguistic mode of communication, suspends the symbolic, replacing taxonomy and, therefore, offers a sublime breach: "Gesture is the communication of a potential to be communicated." (1993, 156). In other words, Agamben’s gesture is something of an “enigmatic signifier” (Leplanche 1987, 126), insofar as it is impregnated with a primitive and unconscious meaning.
Thus, drawing from gesture via Agamben and cinema’s social capacity by way of Benjamin, I implore a central question: what does cinema look like when it enacts philosophy? Benjamin’s 1936 text is in coalition with his publication on Max Weber titled "Capitalism as Religion," (1921) whereby Benjamin enjoins the logic of religion with the cultic "logic of capitalism.” Agamben, carrying the Benjaminian torch, proclaims that capitalism as a "pure cult religion" can solely be countered via “profanation.” (Agamben 2005). For Agamben, profanation is the return of objects of social praxis to “free use,” or a messianic ideal of the generic, non-exclusive community. (2007, 58). Agamben, in associating cinema with the uniquely "gestural" prowess to enact political "profanation," does not proffer cinema with destructive capability but, in his Heideggerrean reading, offers cinema-as-pharmakon: Agamben inculcates cinema with the means to both expose the emptiness of the apparatus, “capturing life,” and, simultaneously, with converting it to spectacle, thereby "hacking spectacle" by pulling the “emergency brake on the religion of late capitalism." (Baumbach 2018, 131).
With the decay of Benjaminian aura via cinema's reproducibility, ever-exacerbated in the so-called “digital turn,” “Web 2.0,” and the era of “post-cinema,” it is critical that we conceive of Agamben's gesture, diacritically opposes to auratic terms, as a practice that can “de-auraticize," or, in this instance, "make cinema profane" by dispelling it of its cult value. While Adorno and Horkhemier decried the culture industry for exacerbating the auratic terms of mass art (a distinct, newfound aura of detachment), Benjamin neutralized such romantic concepts associated with aura. Thus, as Baumbach notes, a conflict is born - "the weapon of the star," or spectacle, which seeks to restore aura to a means of expression (cinema) is "in some sense, contrary to it." (158). The solution to Agamben’s “cinematic paradox” that I hereby propose to proffer is that of a truly "profane" cinema, or an immanent "cinema of the anonymous," which is a political cinema both infinitely reproducible and, simultaneously, liquidated of the “star.” Thus, in order to examine this politically profane potentiality we need to look at specific gestures or operations, meaning that we must turn to a case study.
In reviewing Agamben’s methodological lexicon the terms of hacktivism reappear in convergence with cinematic logic. Agamben’s “making profane,” or denaturalizing mystifications, is akin to whistleblowing and leaking classified (and potentially obstreperous) information. The messianic charge of Agamben's "pure gesture," as articulated in his "The Six Most Beautiful Minutes in the History of Cinema," works within the spectacle that it seeks to "reveal...to be empty and unfulfilled." (2005, 93-94). The hacktivists’ arsenals - from the DDOS attack to dictionary and brute force attacks - all share in common the possibility of achieving a time-space tradeoff by pre-computing a series of hashes, in turn inverting or flooding the database against its own logic. Agamben's "decreation," a borrowed term from Simone Weil's Gravity and Grace, seeks "to make something created pass into the uncreated" (Weil 1947, 35) and allots the capacity for images and signs to be invested with newfound potential. A "hacktivist cinema" of anonymity, whereby the instrumental hack is made immanent (and, consequentially, political) and the subject, hacker, or, in Agamben’s terms, the "star" is made anonymous, imbues hacking with imagistic reproducibility and retrieval - through cinema, the enacted hack can be galvanized anew.
Thus, I would like to examine an instance of filmic hacktivism by way of Redhack. Established in 1997, Redhack is the world’s oldest hacktivist group, drawing from a systematized Marxist-Leninist organizational history. While infamous for inspiring Anonymous’ politically-motivated efforts (such as Operation Tunisia in 2011), at home in Turkey Redhack is quietly lauded for audacious whistleblowing efforts, dispelling disinformation campaigns shepherded by President Erdoğan, and illuminating the AK Party’s authoritarian domestic policies. In a political zeitgeist of paranoia, blanketed by censorship and the ubiquitous potential of imprisonment for dissenters, Redhack’s critical efforts require clandestine methods. While surreptitiously communicating within the impenetrable shadows of IRC, Redhack has breached the Ankara Police Directorate's website in February 2012, leaking documents from the Gendarmerie Intelligence Department about the state's foreknowledge re: the 2013 Reyhanli car bombings and, in 2012, hacked the Turkish Power Distribution System to delete over $650,000 of debt.
As expounded by Bülay Doğan in "Contextualizing Hacktivism: The Criminalization of Redhack," (2018) Turkish journalists, academics, and authors publish under a nation-wide moratorium that censures discussing or mentioning Redhack in publications, propelling Redhack into further marginalization. This is exemplified by the recent incarceration of six dissenting journalists who reported on Redhack's leaked emails in 2016, whereby the accused were charged by the Turkish government with being members "of a terrorist organization" and "committing a crime in the name of the organization." (Diken 2018). As Doğan evinces, the discourse of the State has fabricated and bolstered a “folk devil” falsehood in characterizing Redhack while imbricating journalists or sympathetic parties under the terrorist rhetoric.
Working under relative adumbration in their documentary production, Redhack has instrumentalized the archaeological-reproducibility impulse of the “post-cinema” terrain in all its migratory relocation and community responsiveness. Post-cinema calls to recognition a Benjaminian "Trasuerspiel" of authenticity that corresponds not to an archetypal model or history but, rather, to the conditions in which it reappears and the "destiny towards which it is directed," emphasizing the act of discovery of that which is unrecognizable. (Benjamin 1977). Therefore, it is both original and authentic - what appears derived or secondary are mutually bound together, ultimately emerging together; pre-history and post-history fixed in bondage, or a “vortex” created around a “constant becoming.” (Cassetti in Denson and Leyda 2016, 596-597).
In 2012, the composer Suavi wrote a march for Redhack, quickly published on the Redhack Youtube channel/ (Tatar et. al 2015, 64). This was shortly followed by the publication of the Redhack Documnetary RED! (2013), which was translated into English and circulated online, bolstered by artists, politicians and academics (Harber 2013). The documentary voiced first-hand testimonials and articulated Redhack's political aims and activities - shrouding their identities, these on-screen Redhack members’ shared rhetoric underscored the development of a “hacktivist commons,” which they would use the moving image to distribute.
This “commons” - an open source hacktivist archive – sought to universalize hacktivism and the documentary quickly spread, reposted on varied Youtube channels while garnering laudation from artists, politicians, and academics beyond Turkey’s physical bounds. (Haber 2013). Unraveling the enveloping vectors of nation-state borderlines, Redhack reterritorialized the ethos of "hacktivist-subjectivity," while retaining an anonymous guise. Unlike Citizenfour (2014) and Snowden, The Hacker Wars (2014) and Barren Brown, or The Internet's Own Boy (2014) and Aaron Swartz, with RED! there appeared the unique case of a purely immanent hacktivist film, one that that abrogates the “star,” or “divo,” (Agamben 1992, 22) untangling individual practice from its genus, positing an aura without presence.
In “For an Ethics of Cinema,” Agamben's critique of metaphysical and cinematic personhood discerns the genealogical development towards divo by bifurcating its terms of “individualized emergence” from persona, tied to the "mask" (or masked theatrical actor). (1992, 21). In detailing the commedia dell’arte tradition of “Harlequin, Punchinello, Pantalone, and Beltrame,” Agamben details encounters whereby the mask no longer provides a "vehicle of a higher realm," (21) but, via anonymity and immanence, allots a contamination between real life and the theatrical scene. In fact, in popular culture's hackerly imagination, the Harlequin is all but the mischief motif par excellence - consider Anonymous' Guy Fawkes mask and its correlation with the gesticulating, pantomime-clown (in fact we see can locate such an instance of historical synthesis in the nineteenth century Christmas production of "Harlequin and Guy Fawkes, or, the 5th of November: a Comic Pantomime"). (Covent Garden 1935, 64).
Perhaps, given their separate histories – Anonymous drawing from jocular 4chan beginnings, culling the puckish ethos of what Gabriella Coleman dubs “lulz” (e.g. Anonymous’ puerile 2006 “Habbo Hotel Raid” or the group’s “Project Chanology” 2008 hacks against The Church of Scientology), and Redhack from a markedly Marxist-Leninist history – Redhack’s anonymizing mask is appropriately a simple red scarf stamped with an axe and sickle. Agamben describes the role of the mask as that “which unites the real name with that of the mask,” (21) or a modular coupling between the actor and the actor (Benjamin’s “Author as Producer”). RED!, in its sans-divo circulation, posed a way to navigate Agamben’s cinematic paradox by engendering the ability to don an analog relation where “twoness is dissolved or deterritorialized into a continuous or generic identity.” (69). The mask, lifted from the virtual plane, saw its physical appropriation in Turkey during the 2013 May Day protests and Gezi Park riots, where crimson scarf-donned marchers mounted remonstrance.
Interestingly enough, Benjamin's 1970 “Author as Producer” uncovers a path that leads from Plato’s dialogues to epic theatre in Benjamin’s efforts to navigate the Platonic dyad between the ideal and its instantiation, between essence and instance. In his disquisitions on Brecht, Benjamin seeks to rescue the artist in Plato, whom Plato both feared and admonished, while constricting the philosopher’s ideal Forms with materialist aesthetics. However, rather than that Brechtian Verfremdungseffekt (“distancing effect”) aesthetic operation of theatrical spectatorship, which produces real immediacy through estrangement from spectacle, the theatrical mask is without differentiation or identification - it is real "in itself" and, thereby, precedes scission, separation, or rupture. It is, in fact the aesthetics of politics that opposes the equation of spectacle and power, which Benjamin noted as the affective dimension of fascism. (1936, 42).
Donning the mask irradiates a Laurellean irreflective immanence, or a "simple identity without identification," (Laurelle 2016, 45) for it prevents the Kantian transcendental system of the universal and scattered multiplicity, which Deleuze tried to tie together in mating “immanence with difference.” For Laruelle, this is pure contradiction: Kantian metaphysics bifurcates - the analytic a priori is the realm of transcendentals and the synthetic a posteriori the realm of the real, the empirical. Laruellean immanence, unlike Deleuze’s, superimposes the analytic a priori as the real. Thus, whereas Mladen Dolar points to theater's coup de force as separating the spirit from the body - lifting the curtain and allowing the voice to obtain a surplus-meaning originally disjunct in everyday life - (2006, 69), the theatrical mask, imagistically circulated in a political bal masqué, superimposes identity or "clones the One," to borrow Laruelle's conception. Devoid of "aura," the politically-networked mask of immanence becomes Agamben's pure profanity.
Hence, I propose that RED!, as both a networked “post-cinema” media-object and as “non-cinematic” film, provides a viable way to navigate Agamben’s aforementioned “cinematic paradox” by transfiguring the documentary mode and enacting something a-cinematic: displacing divo and circulating the mask, melding the traditionally riven bifurcation of the virtual vector (of "communication and transport") and posing a free alliance between the "technical or cultural," conjoining the "objective" with "subjective." Thereby, the “hacker class produces itself as itself, but not for itself.” (Wark 2004, 48; 349). By universalizing the shrouded face of the "common hacktivist," masked in the anonymizing red scarf, Redhack visually proclaimed the masked face of Agamben's "generic humanity," sans-identity and, thus, not codifiable by the State. (Agamben 2007, 58).
Through this uniquely inter-mechanical process of reproduction and repetition, we see the actualization of Benjamin's "Author as Producer," (1934) whereby the intellectual merges with the mode of production, directly fused with mankind and, in the most general sense, de-individuated. (Galloway 2014, 179). This is how I would like to bridge Agamben’s generic being with François Laurelle’s Marxian project of immanence and theory of identities. Here, we have retained the Marxist idea of “species-being” but done away with the metaphysical, disrobing dialectic synthesis.
Red!, as Youtube-networked (social) media object, runs contrarily to traditional cinema - this is partially why I believe it may profane the "unprofanable," an endeavor Agamben tasks the "coming generation." (2005, 92). As Baumbach notes, Agamben explicitly terms that cinema may no longer be "emblematic of our situation." (167). As Benjamin identified, a seminal shift re: the work of art in the age of technological reproducibility includes a shift from cult value to exhibition value, whereby the latter is associated with the social act of mass viewership. Agamben's emphasis on gestural repetition and stoppage is bolstered by the avant-garde cinema of Godard and Debord but, perhaps, a non-cinematic cinema of immanence that exploits the terms of reproducibility may better counter the "new condition of objects and even of the human body in the era of fulfilled capitalism." (Agamben 2005, 92).
If, as Alexander Galloway proposes in Laruelle: Against the Digital, we consider the digital/"digital thinking" as the constitution of the binarisms of being and other (or self and the world), the digital is the capacity to make distinctions between essence and instance ("the one dividing in two"). The universal mask, subject-bereft, constitutes "the two coming together as one," or an analog relation. The networked mask, no longer rarefied by the terms of the theatrical stage or nation-borders, produces a relation of nondistinction/an integration between the moving image and the streets of protest. In probing RedHack’s documentary effort, I am also attempting to contemplate the possibility of a “non-digital cinema,” or, at the risk of professing a paradoxical proposal, a “non-digital digital cinema.” By “non-digital,” what I mean is relation without distinction and “digital cinema” is simply a materialist descriptor of medium (DCP), technological processes, and distribution though “post-cinema” perhaps more adequately frames and circumscribes “digital cinema’s” intermedial tendencies.
Terminology aside, this is one such strategy to answer Badiou’ss 1998 query in Cahiers du Cinema: “What does cinema think that nothing but it can think?” without appropriating Metz and Baudry’s “grand theories” of 1970’s film studies, Althusserian “knowledge effects,” reifying Comolli and Narboni's limp claim that “every film is political,” or turning to the cognitivist neoformalist “post-theory” position of Noël Carroll, David Bordwell, and Kristin Thompson. Jacques Aumont, Raymond Bellour, and Francesco Casetti's position on cinema seem to be in relative agreement that the experience of a film is concentrated and constituted in temporal restraints (despite Casetti is more liberal when it comes to “cinema experience”). Thomas Elsaesser’s post-classical position and theory of “cinema as thought experiment” redefines cinema in relation to the generative feedback of game-spaces and the cultural conditions that frame postmodernity. However, given Agamben’s cinematic paradox, by mapping the Benjaminian conditions/influence while contemplating a Laruellean political film theory of immanence, perhaps, via specific case studies, we can evaluate post-cinema in lieu of how digital cartography burgeons, blossoms, and superimposes the flat and motile filmic experience with the mobile and networked exigence of political protest.
Agamben, Giorgio. “Cinema and History: On Jean- Luc Godard.” Translated by John V. Garner
and Colin Williamson. In Cinema and Agamben: Ethics, Biopolitics and the Moving
Image, edited by Henrik Gustafsson and Asbjørn Grønstad, 25–26. New York: Bloomsbury, 2014.
———. The Coming Community. Translated by Michael Hardt. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1993.
———. “Difference and Repetition.” In Guy Debord and the Situationist International: Texts
and Documents, edited by Tom McDonough, 313–319. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002.
———. “For an Ethics of Cinema.” Translated by John V. Garner and Colin Williamson. In
Cinema and Agamben: Ethics, Biopolitics and the Moving Image, edited by Henrik Gustafsson and Asbjørn Grønstad, 19–24. New York: Bloomsbury, 2014.
———. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Translated by Daniel Heller- Roazen.
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1998.
———. Infancy and History: On the Destruction of Experience. Translated by Liz Heron.
London: Verso, 2007.
———. Means Without Ends. Translated by Cesare Casarino and Vincenzo Binetti.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.
———. Nudities. Translated by David Kishik and Stefan Pedatella. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford
University Press, 2010.
———. Nymphs. Translated by Amanda Minervini. London: Seagull, 2013.
———. The Open: Man and Animal. Translated by Kevin Attell. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford
University Press, 2004.
———. Opus Dei: An Archaeology of Duty. Translated by Adam Kotsko. Stanford, Calif.:
Stanford University Press, 2013.
———. Potentialities: Collected Essays in Philosophy. Translated by Daniel Heller- Roazen.
Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2000.
———. Profanations. Translated by Jeff Fort. New York: Zone Books, 2007.
———. The Use of Bodies. Translated by Adam Kotsko. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University
———. “What Is a Destituent Power?” Translated by Stephanie Wakefield. Environment and
Planning D: Society and Space 32 (2014): 65–74.
———. What Is an Apparatus? and Other Essays. Translated by David Kishik and Stefan
Pedatella. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2009.
Althusser, Louis. 1971. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses.” In Lenin and Philosophy
And Other Essays, 121–176. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Badiou, Alain. The Age of the Poets, and Other Writings on Twentieth- Century Poetry and
Prose. Translated by Emily Apter and Bruno Bosteels. London: Verso, 2014.
———. Being and Event. Translated by Oliver Feltham. New York: Continuum, 2005.
———. The Century. Translated by Alberto Toscano. Malden, Mass.: Polity, 2007.
———. Cinema. Edited by Antoine de Baecque. Translated by Susan Spitzer. Malden, Mass.:
Polity, 2013. Originally published as Cin.ma (Paris: Nova, 2010).
———. “Cinema as a Demo cratic Emblem.” Translated by Alan Ling and Aurelien Mondon.
Parrhesia, no. 6 (2009): 1–6.
———. Conditions. Translated by Steve Corcoran. New York: Continuum, 2008.
———. Deleuze: The Clamor of Being. Translated by Louise Burchill. Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota Press, 2000.
Baudry, Jean- Louis. “Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus.” Translated by Alan Williams. In Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology, edited by Philip Rosen, 286–298. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.
Benjamin, Walter. Selected Writings Volume 1: 1913–1926. Edited by Marcus Bullock and
Michael W. Jennings. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.
———. Selected Writings Volume 2: 1927–1934. Translated by Rodney Livingstone et al. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.
———. Selected Writings Volume 3: 1935–1938. Translated by Edmond Jephcott and Harry
Zohn. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.
———. Selected Writings Volume 4: 1938–1940. Translated by Edmond Jephcott and Harry
Zohn. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003.
———. Origin of German Tragic Drama. London: NLB, 1977.
———. Understanding Brecht. Translated by Anna Bostock. London: Verso, 1998.
———.“The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, Second Version,” trans. Edmund Jephcott and Harry Zohn, in Jennings, Doherty, and Levin, Work of Art, 28.
Bergson, Henri. Matter and Memory. Translated by N. M. Paul and W. S. Palmer. New York: Zone Books, 1990.
Brecht, Bertolt. Brecht on Theater. Translated by John Willett. New York: Hill & Wang, 1992.
———. On Art & Politics. Edited by Tom Kuhn and Steve Giles. Translated by Laura Bradley,
Steve Giles, and Tom Kuhn. London: Methuen, 2003.
Coleman, Gabriella. Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Many Faces of Anonymous. London: Verso, 2014.
Comolli, Jean- Louis and Jean Narboni. “Cinema/Ideology/Criticism.” Translated by Susan
Bennett. In Cahiers du Cinema Volume 3: The Politics of Representation, edited by Nick
Browne, 58–67. London: Routledge, 1996.
Conley, Tom. Cartographic Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.
Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 1: The Movement- Image. Translated by Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara
Haberjam. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
———. Cinema 2: The Time- Image. Translated by Hugh Tomlinson and Robert Galeta.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.
———. Difference and Repetition. Translated by Paul Patton. New York: Columbia University
———. Essays Critical and Clinical. Translated by Daniel W. Smith and Michael A. Greco. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.
Denson, Shane and Julia Leyda, eds. Post- Cinema: Theorizing 21st Century Film. Falmer: Reframe, 2016.
Diken, “Erdoğan Muhaliflere Çattı: Ya Bizim Yanımızda Olacaklar ya Teröristlerin.” Online, 2016. http://www.diken.com.tr/erdogan-faturayi-akademisyenlere-kesti-yabizim- yanimizda-olacaklar-ya-teroristlerin/.
Diken, “RedHack Davası Ertelendi: Yurt Dışına Çıkış Yasağına Devam Kararı.” Online, 2018. http://www.diken.com.tr/redhack-davasi-ertelendi-yurt-disina-cikis-yasaginadevam- karari/.
Diken, “RedHack Davası: Tunca Öğreten ve Mahir Kanaat’e Tahliye Kararı.” Online, 2017. http://www.diken.com.tr/redhack-davasi-tunca-ogreten-ve-mahir-kanaate-tahliyekarari/.
Doğan, Bülay. “Contextualizing Hacktivism: The Criminalization of Redhack.” CARGC Paper 10. Philadelphia, USA: CARGC Press, 2019.
Dolar, Mladen. A Voice and Nothing More. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Elsaesser, Thomas and Warren Buckland. Studying Contemporary American Film. New York. Arnold/Oxford University Press, 2001.
Galloway, Alexander. Laruelle: Against the Digital. University of Minnesota Press, 2014.
———. The Interface Effect (Polity, 2012).
———. Les Nouveaux Réalistes: Philosophie et postfordisme [The New Realists: Philosophy and Postfordism]. Trans. Clémentine Duzer et Thomas Duzer. (Editions Léo Scheer, 2012).
———. Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture (Minnesota, 2006).
———. Protocol: How Control Exists After Decentralization (MIT, 2004).
Galloway, Alexander and Eugene Thacker. The Exploit: A Theory of Networks. University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
Galloway, Alexander, et al. Excommunication: Three Inquiries in Media and Mediation. The University of Chicago Press, 2014.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgment. Translated by Werner Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett,
Laplanche, Jean. New Foundations for Psychoanalysis. Translated by David Macey. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989.
Laruelle, François. Struggle and Utopia at the End Times of Philosophy. Translated by Drew S. Burke and Anthony Paul Smith. Minneapolis: Univocal, 2012
———. “The Generic Orientation of Non-Standard Aesthetics”. Paper presented at the Weisman Art Museum, University of Minneapolis, November 17, 2012.
———. Philosophy and Non-Philosophy. Translated by Taylor Adkins. Minneapolis: Univocal, 2013.
———. Principles of Non-Philosophy. Translated by Nicola Rubczak and Anthony Paul Smith. London: Bloomsbury, 2013
———. Anti-Badiou. Translated by Robin Mackay. London: Bloomsbury, 2013
———. “Intellectuals and Power: The Insurrection of the Victim.” François Laruelle in Conversation with Philippe Petit. Translated by Anthony Paul Smith. Cambridge: Polity, 2014. Laruelle, François, and John Maoilearca. “Artistic Experiments with Philosophy: François Laruelle in Conversation with John Ó Maoilearca.” In Realism Materialism Art, edited by Christoph Cox, Jenny Jaskey, and Suhail Malik, 177–83. Berlin: Sternberg/CCS Bard, 2014.
Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998.
Meillassoux, Quentin. After Finitude: An Essay on the Necessity of Contingency. Translated by Ray Brassier. Oxford: Bloomsbury, 2008.
Metz, Christian. Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema. Translated by Michael Taylor.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.
———. The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema. Translated by Celia Britton,
Annwyl Williams, Ben Brewster, and Alfred Guzzetti. Bloomington: Indianan University
———. Language and Cinema. Translated by Donna Jean Umiker- Sebeok. The Hague:
Mouton de Gruyter, 1974.
Nancy, Jean- Luc. “The Deleuzian Fold of Thought.” In Deleuze: A Critical Reader, edited by Paul Patton, 107–113. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.
Thacker, Eugene. In the Dust of This Planet. London, United Kingdom: Zero Books Publishing, 2011.
Wark, McKenzie. A Hacker Manifesto. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Weil, Simone. Gravity and Grace. Translated by Emma Crawford and Mario von der Ruhr. New York, NY. Routeledge Press. 1947.
Yeni Akit. “Hackerlar Kullanıcı Bilgilerini Bulup Satışa Çıkardı.” Online, 2017. http://www.yeniakit.com.tr/haber/hackerlar-kullanici-bilgilerini-bulup-satisacikardi 372661.html.
Yolculuk. “RedHack’ten Eylem Detaylarına dair Açıklama.” Online, 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160929175453/http://gazeteyolculuk.net/aktuel/redhackte n-eylem-detaylarina-dair-aciklama.html.
Zürcher, Erik J. Turkey: A Modern History. London: I. B. Tauris. 2005.
CitizenFour (Poitras, Laura. 2014. USA.)
The Hacker Wars (Weisman, Viven L. 2014. USA.)
The Internet’s Own Boy: The Story of Aaron Shwartz (Knappenberger, Brian. 2014. USA.)
RED! (Bağımsız Sinema Merkezi [Independent Cinema Center]. Turkey. 2013)