Title: Jung Hwa-am (1896–1981)
Author: O. H. Jang-Whan
Topics: biography, Korea
Date: 2009
Source: The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest, Edited by Immanuel Ness. DOI: 10.1002/9781405198073.wbierp0834

Jung Hwa-am was a Korean anti-imperialist and revolutionary activist with strong bonds to the activist movement. As an anarchist activist, Jung was a member of the Je-jung-kuk jo-sun mu-jung-bu ju-eu-ja yun-meng (Korean Anarchist Federation in China). Together with the brothers Li Eul-kyu and Li Jung-kyu, Jung worked for the National Labor University in Shanghai and the Chung-Yung People’s Training Center in collaboration with Chinese anarchists in 1927. Following the full-scale invasion of the Japanese army in China, Jung participated in a broad anti-Japanese front.

In 1931, at the French settlement in Shanghai, Jung organized the Hang-il gu-kuk yun-meng (Anti-Japanese National Salvation Association) with Chinese anti-imperialist anarchists to work for reconnaissance of military and police facilities, assassination of key enemy figures, purging of pro-Japanese elements, and the formation of an anti-Japanse propaganda network throughout China. He formed the Nam-wha han-in chung-nyun yun-meng (Korean Youth Federation in South China) in 1932 and established the South China Club under its control. He also organized the Huk-sek gong-po-dan (Black Terrorist Unit) to attack all Japanese elements. In 1937, when the Manchurian Incident escalated into the Sino-Japanese War and the Battle of Shanghai erupted, he organized the Han-kuk chung-nyun jun-si kong-jak-dai (Korean Youth Wartime Operational Unit) with Chinese army cooperation. After 1945 he created the Private School of Korean Studies and Commemorative School for Sin Chai Ho in Shanghai. Returning to Korea in 1950, he devoted himself to working with revolutionary political parties in South Korea, helping to found the social-democratic Minjusahoe-dang in 1955 and the Unification Socialist Party in 1961.

References and Suggested Readings

Jung Hwaam (1982) I jo-guk eu-di-ro gal-gup-in-ga (Where Is My Fatherland Going? My Memoirs). Seoul: Chayu Mun’go.

Ming, K. & Dirlik, A. (1992) Schools into Fields and Factories: Anarchists, the Guomindang, and the Labor University in Shanghai, 1927–1932. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Publication Committee of Korean Anarchist History (1978) Han-kuk mu-jung-bu ju-y un-dong-sa (The History of Korean Anarchism). Seoul: Hyung-Sul Publishing.