The Organization of Righteous Bravery

The Declaration of Joseon revolution

January, 1923







Japan the burglar romoved the name of our country, snatched our political power, deprived all requirements for subsistence. As they plunder the factors of production such as woodlands·marshes·railroads·mines·fisheries and light industrial materials, the whole operations functions were hacked by a knife and chopped by an axe. The increasing of taxes such as land taxes·house taxes·population taxes·livestock taxes·birthday taxes·local taxes·liquor taxes·fertilizer taxes·seed taxes·business taxes·cleanness taxes·income taxes and other sundry taxes is sucking our blood. The decent merchants have became a middlemen who are mediating Japanese manufactures to Joseon people, and they are going to ruin under the principles of capital intensive step by step. The greater part of the people, in other words, general peasantries are plowing with blood and sweat. But they cannot reserve any of a year’s income for themselves and their wife and children’s bare livelihood. And they become just the horses and cattle which are fattening Japan the burglar, the enemy which is planning to devour us. Japanese immigrants are increasing every year not to let us make a living like even horses and cattle. Thus Japs[1] are so annoying that our race don’t have any territory to step on. Then all of us are driven to the mountains or the waters, to west Gando or north Gando,[2] to a wilderness of Siberia and become starving phantom or roaming ghost,

Japan the burglar commits the rule of the saber so wickedly that our nation cannot do anything even a footstep. And there is no freedom of speech, no freedom of the press, no freedom of association, so if we have any resentments and resentments of agony, we can nothing but try touching dumb chest. We are blind to the world of happiness and liberty. We are sending our sons and daughters to the slave training center whose name is ‘school’ saying “Japanese language is our language, Japanese alphabet is our alphabet.” When reading Joseon history, we should read the distortions by Japan such as “Dangun[3] is the brother of Hayasusanoo-no-Ohokami[4],” “The area south of Han River was Japanese territory while three kingdoms era.[5]” When we read the newspapers or the periodicals, they all say half-Japanizated enslaved presses which are praising burglary government. If there are intelligent youngsters, they must be the backslider of pessimistic despair or be under detention by a pretext of “treason and plot” and be tortured with all sorts of severe punishments, which are not contained even the barbaric monarchy’s penal code, such as leg-screwing,[6] wearing a cangue,[7] enchaining foot, torturing with red-hot iron·whip·electricity, picking fingernails and toenails with a needle, fastening the limbs, pouring water into the nostrils, hammering a wick in the crotch. And they must be dead by the torture. Even though they could step out a prison gate alive by good luck, they must be disabled cripple forever. If it would not be so, an inventive and creative instinct is ruptured by subsistence’s suffering, a progressive and active spirit is vanished by an occasion’s pressure. Being restricted·whipped·maltreated·oppressed, we are forced to be silence without “a whimper or tweet.” Thus the whole land of Korea[8] became no more than a gigantic jail, our nation lost not only an awakening, but also an instinct and became the machinery from the slavery, so we become nothing but the burglar’s supplies,

As Japan the burglar regards our lives as bits of straw,[9] We cannot mention all of wicked acts done by Japanese army’s in our 13 provinces where our righteous armies[10] arose after Eulsa[11]. Lately, after March 1st[12], Japan is massacring inhabitants, firing the hamlet, outraging women, cutting the head off, burying alive, burning at the stake, chopping the man into pieces, racking a child, ruining the vagina in everywhere, from internal places like Suwon·Sonchon, to the north Gando·west Gando·Russian territory[13]·Primorsky[14]. Thus they use disastrous method as far as they can, and they are pressuring our nation with terror and horror to make us the “living dead”.

Being based on the facts as mentioned above, we declare that Japanese burglary politics, namely the rule by a different race is the enemy of our Joseon nation’s existence. Concurrently, we declare that the revolutionary means which is slaughtering the enemy of our existence, Japan the burglar is our justifiable means.


Who are the fellows persisting internal independence or political rights or autonomy?

Did you forget the dark history, the pledge which was taking “Oriental harmony”, “Korean independent conservation” as security was consuming the whole land of Korea?

“조선인민 생명·재산·자유 보호” “조선인민 행복증진” 등을 거듭 밝힌 선언이 땅에 떨어지지 아니하여 2천만의 생명이 지옥에 빠지던 실제를 못 보느냐? After March 1st, Japan the burglar order one or two traitors to shout such a crazy remark like this to weaken our independence movement. Hereupon, how can’t the people who follow this blindly be the blind or the sly?

Even if Japan the burglar has magnanimous magnanimity and is willing to allow our claim, the internal independence without varieties of privileges make our Joseon nation nothing but the starving phantom, isn’t it? Let us suppose that we acquire the political rights. 자국의 무산계급 혈액까지 착취하는 자본주의 강도국의 식민지 인민이 되어 몇 개 노예 대의사(代議士)의 선출로 어찌 아사의 화를 면하겠는가? Let us suppose that we obtain the autonomy. 그 어떤 종류의 자치임을 묻지 않고 일본이 그 강도적 침략주의의 간판인 〈제국〉이란 명칭이 존재한 이상에는, 그 지배하에 있는 조선인민이 어찌 구구한 자치의 헛된 이름으로써 민족적 생존을 유지하겠는가 ?

Even if Japan the burglar became Buddha or Bodhisattva[15] to abolish the government-general overnight, return all of our rights and interests, 내정 외교를 다 우리의 자유에 맡기고, 일본의 군대와 경찰을 일시에 철환하며, 일본의 이주민을 일시에 소환하고 다만 헛된 이름의 종주권만 가진다 할지라도 우리가 만일 과거의 기억이 전멸하지 아니하였다 하면, 일본을 종주국으로 봉대한다 함이 〈치욕〉이란 명사를 아는 인류로는 못할지니라.

Who are the fellows crying culture movement under Japaneses burglary politics?

Culture is a noun which means the cumulative effects of the industry and the civilization’s development. The nation which is shorn of the right to live under the economic plunder is doubtful to preserve their existence, to say nothing of cultural development. Though the downfallen Indians·Jews have the culture, the former is keeping the remain benefits of civilization 하나는 금전의 힘으로 그 조상의 종교적 유업을 계속함이며, 하나는 그 토지의 넓음 과 인구의 많음으로 상고(上古)에 자유롭게 발달한 문명의 남은 혜택을 지킴이니, 어디 모기와 등에 같이, 승냥이와 이리같이 사람의 피를 빨다가 골수까지 깨무는 강도 일본의 입에 물린 조선 같은 데서 문화를 발전 혹 지켰던 전례가 있더냐? 검열·압수, 모든 압박 중에 몇몇 신문·잡지를 가지고 〈문화운동〉의 목탁으로 스스로 떠들어 대며, 강도의 비위에 거스르지 아니할 만한 언론이나 주창하여 이것을 문화 발전의 과정으로 본다 하면, 그 문화 발전이 도리어 조선의 불행인가 하노라.

Being based on the reasons as mentioned above, we declare that a person who is making a compromise with Japan the burglar, the enemy of our existence or an ideologist who is a parasite on the burglary politics is our enemy too.


There are other advocates while we assert the expulsion of Japan the burglar.

The first is a diplomacy. 이조 5백년 문약정치(文弱政治)가 외교로써 호국의 좋은 계책으로 삼아 더욱 그 말세에 대단히 심하여 갑신(甲申)이래 유신당(維新黨)·수구당(守舊黨)의 성쇠가 거의 외원의 도움의 유무에서 판결되며, 위정자의 정책은 오직 갑국을 끌어당겨 을국을 제압함에 불과하였고, 그 믿고 의지하는 습성이 일반 정치사회에 전염되어 즉 갑오·갑신 양 전역에 일본이 수십만 명의 생명과 수억만의 재산을 희생하여 청·노 양국을 물리고, 조선에 대하여 강도적 침략주의를 관철하려 하는데 우리 조선의 “조국을 사랑한다. 민족을 건지려 한다”하는 이들은 일검일탄으로 어리석고 용렬하며 탐욕스런 관리나 국적에게 던지지 목하고, 탄원서나 열국공관(列國公館)에 던지며, 청원서 나 일본정부에 보내어 국세(國勢)의 외롭고 약함을 애소(哀訴)하여 국가 존망·민족사활의 대문제를 외국인 심지어 적국인의 처분으로 결정하기만 기다리었도다. 그래서 〈을사조약〉 〈경술합병〉 — 곧 〈조선〉이란 이름이 생긴 뒤 몇 천년만에 처음 당하던 치욕에 대한 조선민족의 분노적 표시가 겨우 하얼빈의 총, 종로의 칼, 산림유생의 의병이 되고 말았도다.

Alas! Our past several scores years history will be spitted at an abused by courageous people and will be heartbroken history by kindhearted people. 그러고도 국망 이후 해외로 나가는 모모 지사들의 사상이, 무엇보다도 먼저 외교가 그 제1장 제1조가 되며, 국내 인민의 독립운동을 선동하는 방법도 “미래의 일미전쟁(日美戰爭)·일로전쟁 등 기회”가 거의 천편일률의 문장이었고, 최근 3·1운동의 일반 인사의 〈평화회의〉 〈국제연맹〉에 대한 과신의 선전이 도리어 2천만 민중의 용기있게 힘써 앞으로 나아가는 의기를 없애는 매개가 될 뿐이었도다.

The second is a preparation. 을사조약의 당시에 열국공관에 빗발돋듯 하던 종이쪽지로 넘어가는 국권을 붙잡지 못하며, 정미년의 헤이그밀사도 독립회복의 복음을 안고 오지 못하메, 이에 차차 외교에 대하여 의문이 되고 전쟁이 아니면 안되겠다는 판단이 생기었다. 그러나 군인도 없고 무기도 없이 무엇으로써 전쟁하겠느냐? 산림유생들은 춘추대의에 성패를 생각지 않고 의병을 모집하여 아관대의로 지휘의 대장이 되며, 사냥 포수의 총든 무리를 몰아가지고 조일전쟁(朝日戰爭)의 전투선에 나섰지만 신문 쪽이나 본 이들 — 곧 시세를 짐작한다는 이들은 그리할 용기가 아니 난다. 이에 “금일 금시로 곧 일본과 전쟁한다는 것은 망발이다. 총도 장만하고, 돈도 장만하고, 대포도 장만하고, 장관이나 사졸감까지라도 다 장만한 뒤에야 일본과 전쟁한다”함이니, 이것이 이른바 준비론 곧 독립전쟁을 준비하자 함이다. 외세의 침입이 더할수록 우리의 부족한 것이 자꾸 감각되어, 그 준비론의 범위가 전쟁 이외까지 확장되어 교육도 진흥해야 겠다, 상공업도 발전해야 겠다, 기타 무엇 무엇 일체가 모두 준비론의 부분이 되었다. 경술 이후 각 지사들이 혹 서·북간도의 삼림을 더듬으며, 혹 시베리아의 찬 바람에 배부르며, 혹 남·북경으로 돌아다니며, 혹 미주나 하와이로 돌아가며, 혹 경향(京鄕)에 출몰하여 십여 년 내외 각지에서 목이 터질 만치 준비! 준비!를 불렀지만, 그 소득이 몇 개 불완전한 학교와 실력이 없는 단체뿐이었었다. 그러나 그들의 성의의 부족이 아니라 실은 그 주장의 착오이다. These days, Japan the burglar is mistreating us by the politics and the economy, so that economics of our nation is growing more troublesome day by day and all the instruments of production are divested and the way how to eat something is dying out. During a period like this, How can we prosper the industry, expand the education? In addition, where and how much we can train the troops? And if we could, it can’t be compared with Japanese combat power. All of these are such a bullshit.

Being based on the reasons as mentioned above, we declare renouncing the delusions such as “diplomacy” or “preparation”, and taking a means direct revolutionary means by the people.


To maintain Joseon nation’s existence, we must eject Japan the burglar. And to eject Japan the burglar, we must do it by only the revolution. There is no method to eject Japan the burglar except the revolution.

To be engaged in revolution, which sphere should be commenced first?

In the case of revolution in the old era, the people were the slave of state and there were special forces who rule the people above them. Thus, the so-called revolution meant nothing but altering the titles of special forces. In other words, namely, it was meaning no more than changing the special force “A” to special force “B”. Therefore, the people did not have a direct relationship with the revolution, only to see who is more opposed to the forces of God, the gods and the gods, who is more arrogant, who is better, who is worse, . Thus, the only purpose of the revolution is to “take the neck of the king and comfort the people”, and “the rice of the one lunch and the army of the king as the head of the cadre” became the only bitch of the revolutionary history. It is called the “People’s Revolution” because it is the revolution that the people are doing for the people’s self. It is the revolution of the people and the heat of the boiling and expansion breaks the notion of numerical comparison. The success and failure of the war breaks the judgment of the war of the Mangyang war, and it destroys the king who has no money, no army, and a million troops and billions of buoyant powers, and chases foreign robbers. Request.

How can people prepare themselves for?

The people are not determined to be a rookie, an adult, or a hero of a hero in order to lead the people, “Do not be afraid of the voice of such a furious cry.” .

The only way for the people to defeat the disadvantages of all complaints, unnatural and unreasonable public improvements for the people is to be the only way to defeat the people. In other words, soon the people who realize it become revolutionary for the whole of the people It is the first way of resolving the people.

The general public is hungry, cold, tired, painful, crying, crying, crying, paying taxes, prompting bribes, inconvenient behavior, all pressures, If the gospel is to be transmitted to the Dead Sea, the people will shed tears of sympathy, and every one of them will be given to the Asa “The courageous can not stand the rage, the weak can not withstand the pain, they are all gathered on this way and continue to progress and universally spread, When this happens, it will be a day when Japan is going to be forced to leave behind. Therefore, if we enlist our people and overthrow the rule of robbery, and pioneer the new life of our nation, 100,000 soldiers will not be thrown a single bomb, and a hundred thousand newspapers will not rival once.

It is only if the violent revolution of the people does not occur, and if it has already occurred, it is like a stone rolling on a cliff, and it will not stop unless it reaches its destination. In our experience, it is only the activity of special forces in the palace when the special forces fought against special forces, and the soldiers before and after the sacrifice are the ideology of the reading class, Behavior was fervent, but there was no basis for the capacity of the people, and the voice of popular unity was at first glance at the hail of the March 1 movement, but it also did not have a violent center. Even if one of them is extinguished, even though the act of giving a sound that shakes the heavens and the earth, it is also like lightning.

The causes of revolution caused by Japan the burglar are piled up, just like a mountain, in Joseon. If moving forward with the mottos “No life without independence,” “Never retreat before outsting Japan,” we must accomplish an aim. This cannot be blocked up by a police saber or a military rifle or a gimmick of a crafty statesman.

Naturally, an archive of revolution must be gruesome and courageous archive. Taking a step backward, there is a dark snare behind. But taking a step forward, there is a bright vivacity. Thus progressing with archiving that gruesome and courageous archive is only thing Joseon nation ourselves will do.

From now on, let’s start enumerating the targets of our violences, assassination·destruction·rioting,

  1. Governor-General of Korea[16] and the following public servants

  2. Emperor of Japan and the following public servants

  3. spies and traitors

  4. All facilities of the enemy

In addition, each local gentleman or code should not be guilty of significantly interfering with the revolutionary movement, but whoever delays and slanderes our movements in language or behavior must face our violence. Japanese immigrants will become a machine of Japanese burglary politics and become a vanguard that threatens the survival of the Korean people, that is, they will also be driven out of our violence.


A revolutionary way will be carved by the destruction. But this is not the destruction for the destruction, but the destruction for the construction. Therefore, if we don’t know how to construct, we don’t know how to destroy either, and if we don’t know how to destroy, we don’t know how to construct either. Formally, the construction is distinct from the destruction. And mentally, the destruction is the construction itself. The first reason why we try to demolish Japanese power is, so to speak, to destroy the rule by a different race. What for? 〈조선〉이란 그 위에 〈일본〉이란 이민족 그것이 전제(專制)하여 있으니, 이족 전제의 밑에 있는 조선은 고유적 조선이 아니니, 고유적 조선을 발견하기 위하여 이족통치를 파괴함이니라.

The second reason is to destroy the privileged class. What for? 〈조선민중〉이란 그 위에 총독이니 무엇이니 하는 강도단의 특권계급이 압박하여 있으니, 특권계급의 압박 밑에 있는 조선민중은 자유적 조선민중이 아니니, 자유적 조선민중을 발견하기 위하여 특권계급을 타파함이니라.

The third reason is to destroy the economic plunder. What for? 약탈제도 밑에 있는 경제는 민중 자기가 생활하기 위하여 조직한 경제니, 민중생활을 발전하기 위하여 경제 약탈제도를 파괴함이니라.

The forth reason is to destroy the social inequality. What for? 약자 위에 강자가 있고 천한 자 위에 귀한 자가 있어 모든 불평등을 가진 사회는 서로 약탈, 서로 박탈, 서로 질투·원수시하는 사회가 되어, 처음에는 소수의 행복을 위하여 다수의 민중을 해치다가 말경에는 또 소수끼리 서로 해치어 민중 전체의 행복이 필경 숫자상의 공(空)이 되고 말 뿐이니, 민중 전체의 행복을 증진하기 위하여 사회적 불평등을 파괴함이니라.

The fifth reason is to destroy the servile culture. What for? 전통적 문화사상의 종교·윤리·문학·미술·풍속·습관 그 어느 무엇이 강자가 제조하여 강자를 옹호하던 것이 아니더냐? 강자의 오락에 이바지하던 도구가 아니더냐? 일반 민중을 노예화하게 했던 마취제가 아니더냐? 소수 계급은 강자가 되고 다수 민중은 도리어 약자가 되어 불의의 압제를 반항치 못함은 전혀 노예적 문화사상의 속박을 받은 까닭이니, 만일 민중적 문화를 제창하여 그 속박의 철쇄를 끊지 아니하면, 일반 민중은 권리 사상이 박약하며 자유 향상의 흥미가 결핍하여 노예의 운명 속에서 윤회할 뿐이다. 그러므로 민중문화를 제창하기 위하여 노예적 문화사상을 파괴함이니라.

다시 말하자면 〈고유적 조선의〉 〈자유적 조선민중의〉 〈민중적 경제의〉 〈민중적 사회의〉 〈민중적 문화의〉 조선을 건설하기 위하여 〈이족통치의〉 〈약탈제도의〉 〈사회적 불평등의〉 〈노예적 문화사상의〉 현상을 타파함이니라. 그런즉 파괴적 정신이 곧 건설적 주장이라. 나아가면 파괴의 〈칼〉이 되고 들어오면 건설의 〈깃발〉이 될지니, 파괴할 기백은 없고 건설하고자 하는 어리석은 생각만 있다 하면 5백년을 경과하여도 혁명의 꿈도 꾸어보지 못할지니라. 이제 파괴와 건설이 하나요 둘이 아닌 줄 알진대, 민중적 파괴 앞에는 반드시 민중적 건설이 있는 줄 알진대, 현재 조선민중은 오직 민중적 폭력으로 신조선(新朝鮮) 건설의 장애인 강도 일본 세력을 파괴할 것뿐인 줄을 알진대, 조선민중이 한 편이 되고 일본강도가 한 편이 되어, 네가 망하지 아니하면 내가 망하게 된 〈외나무다리 위〉에 선 줄을 알진대, 우리 2천만 민중은 일치로 폭력 파괴의 길로 나아갈지니라.

The mass of the PEOPLE is the major headquarters of our revolution.

The VIOLENCE is the only weapon of our revolution.

We will go into the people, we will cooperate with people. And using endless violence, assassination·destruction·rioting,

OVERTHROW the reign of Japan the burglar,

RESHUFFLE every unreasonable regime,

The mankind would not able to apply pressure to the mankind,

The society would not able to plunder the society. We will construct the IDEAL Joseon.

January, 1923

Organization of Righteous Bravery (의열단; 義烈團)

[1] The original word: “딸각발이”, which means a person who wears wooden clogs. In those era, Japanese people commonly wear geta, Japanese clogs.

[2] See Jiandao

[3] Dangun. The founding father of the Korean nation. God of Taejonggyo.

[4] God of Japanese mythos.

[5] Three Kingdoms of Korea. the ancient times of Korea.

[6] The original word: “주리”, which means a torture twisting the victim’s legs with two sticks inserted between them.

[7] See cangue.

[8] The original word: “삼천리”. Korean usually call their country this idiom.

[9] Korean idiom which means ‘a worthless thing.’

[10] The original word: “의병”, See Righteous Army.

[11] ‘Eulsa’ means the serpent year on Chinese zodiac. In other words, A.D. 1905

[12] See March 1st Movement.

[13] THe original word: “노령”. “노” means Russian, and “령” means a territory

[14] See Primorsky Krai.

[15] See Buddha and Bodhisattva

[16] See Governor-General of Korea.

Retrieved on 2020-05-10 from
A partial translation of the manifesto written by Korean anarchists by Salamander724. The declaration of Joseon revolution (《조선 혁명 선언》), also known The declaration of Organization of Righteous Bravery(《의열단 선언》) is a declaration written by Korean historian, independence activist, anarchist Shin Chaeho in 1923. Shin was opposed to diplomatic method for independence, and he asserted violent struggle. In this declaration, Shin’s opinion is appearing on the surface. The Organization of Righteous Bravery (의열단), Korean anarchist underground organization printed this and used it for the member’s must book.